MySQL/MariaDB Database Master-Slave Replication
Master-slave replication is used to solve many different problems with performance, supporting the backup of different databases, and as a part of a larger solution to alleviate system failures. It enables data from one database server (the master) to be replicated to one or more database servers (the slaves). The master logs the updates, which then ripple through to the slaves. The slave outputs a message stating that it has received the update successfully, which allows sending subsequent updates. Master-slave replication can be either synchronous or asynchronous. The difference is simply the timing of propagation of changes. If the changes are made to the master and slave at the same time, it is synchronous. If changes are queued up and written later, it is asynchronous.
The target usage for replication in MariaDB and MySQL databases includes:
- Scale-out solutions
- Data security
- Long-distance data distribution
How you can use such replication and take advantage of it:
- Backups: to use replication as a backup solution, replicate data from the master to a slave, and then back up the data slave. The slave can be paused and shut down without affecting the running operation of the master, so you can produce an effective snapshot of “live” data that would otherwise require the master to be shut down.
- Scale-out: you can use replication as a scale-out solution; that is, where you want to split up a load of database queries across multiple database servers, within some reasonable limitations. Because replication works from the distribution of one master to one or more slaves, using it for scale-out works best in an environment where you have a high number of reads and a low number of writes/updates.
- Spreading the load: there may be situations when you have a single master and wish to replicate different databases to different slaves. For example, you may want to distribute sales data only to the required departments to help spread the load during data analysis.
- Increasing the performance: as the number of slaves connecting to a master increases, the load, although minimal, also increases, as each slave uses a client connection to the master. As each slave must receive a full copy of the master binary log, the network load on the master may also increase and create a bottleneck. If you are using a large number of slaves connected to one master, and that master is also busy processing requests (for example, as part of a scale-out solution), then you may want to improve the replication process’s performance. One way to improve the performance of the replication process is to create a deeper replication structure that enables the master to replicate to only one slave, and for the remaining slaves to connect to this primary slave for their replication requirements.
- Failover alleviating: You can set up a master and a slave (or several slaves) and write a script that monitors the master to check whether it is up. Then instruct your applications and the slaves to change master in case of failure.
- Security: you can use SSL for encrypting the transfer of the binary log required during replication, but both the master and the slave must support SSL network connections. If either host does not support SSL connections, replication through an SSL connection is not possible. Setting up replication using an SSL connection is similar to setting up a server and client using SSL. You must obtain (or create) a suitable security certificate that you can use on the master and a similar certificate (from the same certificate authority) on each slave.
Now, let’s examine a simple example of how to configure master-slave replication on the platform.
You are able to set a DB cluster in two ways:
You can get a MySQL or MariaDB database cluster with the required replication type (including the master-slave one) up and running within minutes using one-click install widget:
The process is simple - just provide your email and confirm via the appropriate notification. Read the MariaDB/MySQL Auto-Clustering article for more information on the installed package and available customization options.
If you prefer to configure the Master-Slave replication manually in order to get more slave replicators or specify some custom configurations, please, follow the instruction below.
First of all, we create two environments for our master and slave databases.
1. Log in to the platform dashboard and click the New Environment button.
2. In the Environment Topology wizard, pick MariaDB (or MySQL) as a database you want to use. Set the cloudlet limit and type the name of your first environment, for example, masterbase.
Wait just a minute for your environment to be created.
3. In the same way, create one more environment with MariaDB or just clone it. Let’s name it slavebase. It will be located on the other hardnode, which is even more secure and reliable for storing your data.
Now you have two identical environments with two databases.
Configure Master Database
Let’s configure the master base now.
1. Click the Config button for your master database.
2. Navigate to the my.cnf file and add the following properties as it is shown below:
We use the “mixed” binlog format (binlog-format = mixed) to allow a replication of operations with foreign keys.
3. Save the changes and Restart MariaDB in order to apply the new configuration parameters.
4. Click the Open in Browser button for MariaDB. The platform have sent you an email with credentials to the database. Log in using these credentials.
5. Navigate to the User accounts tab and click Add user account.
6. Specify the name and password for your slave replication user.
Now, scroll down and tick the replication client and replication slave administration privileges.
Click Go at the bottom of the page.
7. Switch to the Status tab to ensure that replication is configured correctly.
Pay attention to the log File and Position values, as they will be needed later to set up the slave database.
Configure Slave Database
Let’s go back to the platform dashboard and configure our slave database.
1. Click the Config button for your slavebase environment.
2. Navigate to the my.cnf file and add the following strings:
We allow our slave base to skip all errors from master (slave-skip-errors = all) in order not to stop normal slave operation in case of errors on master base.
3. Next, open the /etc/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php file and append it with the next option:
4. Save the changes and Restart your slave database server in order to apply the new configuration parameters.
5. Let’s configure our slave database server via a built-in Web SSH client. Connect to your database using credentials from the email received after the node creation.
6. Provide replication master details.
Do not forget to replace the option’s values in the example above with the correct data:
- MASTER_HOST - URL or IP of the replication master
- MASTER_USER - replication user
- MASTER_PASSWORD - replication user’s password,
- MASTER_LOG_FILE - master’s log file (see the last step of the master configuration section)
- MASTER_LOG_POS - master’s log position (see the last step of the master configuration section)
7. Now, you can to start replication slave with the appropriate command:
Tip: If you want to ensure that everything is configured correctly, log in to the slave database admin and go to the Status tab.
We have to ensure now that master-slave replication works for our databases.
1. Let’s create the new database (e.g. jelastic) in our master base.
2. Navigate to the slave base, and you’ll see that the new database was successfully replicated.
Connection to Master-Slave
Here are two examples of connecting to your master and slave databases from Java and PHP applications.
1. As an example, you can see the code of our Java application, which connects to master and slave databases.
2. Connection to master and slave databases for your PHP application:
Now, you have your own database replication in the cloud. Enjoy!